Measurement Techniques and Distributed Intelligence for Power Systems

  Examples from the course Copyright: © ACS

The course “Measurements Techniques and Distributed Intelligence for Power Systems” analyzes the fundamental elements, technologies and architectures in use for electrical distribution grids and it illustrates the ongoing evolution towards fully automated solutions. 


The focus is on the role of measurements in power systems: the fundamentals and the accuracy concept, the measurements of electrical quantities and the devices to deploy them, the architectures for data exchange in digital substations and the state estimation for power systems. Moreover, measurements and control with agent-based architectures will be discussed. The topics are related to the relevant standards adopted in the power system domain.


  • Metrology
  • Measurement uncertainty
  • ISO GUM standard

Measurements in electrical networks

  • Instrument transformers
  • Power measurements
  • Digitization of monitoring chain
  • Architecture of substation automation


  • Synchrophasor concept
  • Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) technology
  • PMU algorithms and errors
  • PMU standards

State Estimation

  • Static, centralized state estimation
  • Weighted least squares (WLS) algorithm
  • Bad data detection
  • Integration of PMU data

Agents in power systems

  • Multi-agent system (MAS) concept
  • MAS for measurement, monitoring and control
  • Basics of the FIPA standard


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